Certainly, the listed above types of bilateral agreements do not all of them possible versions, especially in the conditions of continuous complication, diversification and emergence all new ways and instruments of the foreign trade regulation.
- the countries of DEH which are not members of the WTO are guided in the relations among themselves and with member countries of GATT by all provisions GATTs, for what are not applicable for trade in energy carriers (for example, on textiles, the Art. IV of GATT) or which can be realized only in of mechanisms of the WTO (for example, DUS, lists of concessions).
According to the contents the principle of the most favored nation, from the point of view, is the most effective method of carrying out in life an oavnopraviya of the states in relation to the international trade and economic relations.
In the first part (Art. 1 and GATT guarantees to all participants of the Agreement a most favored nation treatment in trade in goods. The agreeing have to submit lists of tariff concessions. The tariff rates given in concessions carry consolidated harakter2 In other words, rates of duties on the goods containing in lists are fixed. They make integrated part of GATT and cannot be raised unilaterally (so-called connected rates).
The essence of the General system of preferences consists in granting advantages to developing countries on access of their goods to the markets of the developed countries. The main form of preferences are the tariff privileges fixed in the form of the lowered rates of the import duties.
Tariff regulation in various states has much in common, on the uniform principles and norms that considerably facilitates process of trade. It became result of activity of the international organizations — World Customs Organization, the Economic Commission for Europe of the UN, the World Trade Organization, Conference of the UN on trade and a, and also a row multilateral soglasheniy.5
Principle of freedom of transit. As transit or transit transportations it is accepted to understand pass of goods (including baggage), and also vessels and vehicles through the territory of a contracting party which thus is only part of the full way which is beginning and coming to an end outside border of a contracting party through which territory the movement of freight. Thus similar pass can be interfaced with goods, warehousing, crushing of a consignment of goods and change of means of transport.
The main text of GATT contains 38 articles united in four parts., the containing remarks, explanations and additional conditions to articles GATTs are also considered as a component of the main text of the Agreement.
In modern tariff regulation there is a gradual reduction of customs taxation of import. Now the average level of duties on production of manufacturing industry makes a little less than 5%. Reduction of tariffs will be obvious to take place and in the future.
DUS contains a number of the provisions taking specific of developing countries and least developed countries into account. DUS also some special rules for the solution of disputes which do not attract for violation of obligations under the relevant Agreement but where the participant, nevertheless, can assume that his benefits are lost or decrease.
The customs tariff, besides equilibrium regulation of the foreign trade, carries out protective functions for the purpose of support of domestic. However, creation of excessively preferential terms for separate only contains the general growth of economy. Therefore for compulsory stimulation of implementation of necessary measures for increase of a of the enterprises possibly decrease in rates of the import customs duties on the corresponding production.
The basis of a multilateral international trade order is formed by of the Uruguayan round of negotiations of GATT. Final documents of the Uruguayan round are fixed in a form of the Final act representing the consolidated document, which all tools in the plan.